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Extra resources for An optimal selection of induction heater capacitance considering dissipation loss caused by ESR

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By far the simplest approach to avoid the dead-zone problem is to use the threestate phase-frequency detector, which was first identified by Sharpe [28]. Rather than attempt to make a digital determination about which divider input occurred first, this phase detector deals with both divider outputs in a parallel manner where the analog voltage outputs are combined in the differential analog electronics that follow. Since each flip-flop in the detector exhibits a finite output pulse width, finite rise and fall time issues are essentially eliminated [29].

Reprinted with permission. (b) QuadD phase/frequency detector. (Reprinted with permission from EDN Magazine, Sept. 20, 1976. ) Phase-frequency detectors can in principle output a voltage or a current that is proportional to the instantaneous phase error in the system. Although the voltage variety has been of primary focus in this chapter, the current output variety, which are often called charge pumps, are actually just as common if not more so. The interested reader is referred to [30]. More exhaustive discussions of phase detector types may be found in [3] and [5].

Early phase-frequency detectors directed pulse outputs to one of two outputs depending on whether the reference edge or the feedback divider edge was observed first. If the input edges occurred very close together in time, occasionally the wrong decision would be made, which could cause the device to momentarily reenter its frequency discriminator mode. Other limitations due simply to finite rise and fall times associated with very narrow pulses also led to phase detector gains that were much smaller than normal.

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