By Robert B. Killingsworth (Editor), G. W. Pearce (Editor)
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Extra info for Agricultural Applications of Petroleum Products (Advances in Chemistry Series 007)
Several workers (1,41,44) 50) have investigated natural surface films i n relation to the spreading of larvicidal oils upon water. Toms (60) has prepared "spreading standards" of oleyl alcohol and liquid paraffin, and of terpineol and liquid paraffin. B y using drops of these spreading standards on natural waters he measured the "resistance" of the exist ing surface film that would hamper the spreading of oil and expressed the results i n dynes per centimeter. F o r example, the resistance of a film pressure classed i n the range of 30 to 35 dynes per centimeter at 20° C .
Although the oxidation products formed are not known, they appear to be primarily organic acids. 0 Figure 1. 0 Correlation of Acid Number with Plant Injury I t appeared desirable to use a method which was relatively simple, and generally known, i n initial efforts to correlate data on the phytotoxicity of isoparaffinic fractions with an acceptable quality control procedure. The determination of acid number (value), a common petroleum laboratory procedure, was employed i n the current study. The method employed i n these studies for determining acid number is described by Snell and Biffin (4).
They compared the spreading properties of Triton X-100 and of a Span 20-Tween 20 mixture (equal parts when used i n N o . 2 fuel oil) ; the results are given i n Table I I . The pond with stagnant water thick with algae showed the greatest inhibition to spreading; the pond with smartweed and floating grass showed the best spread. The fuel oil containing equal parts of Span 20 and Tween 20 spread better than that containing Triton X-100. Table II. Effect of Adding Triton X-100 and Span 20 plus Tween 20 on Spread of No.