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By Kim M.G.

Within the eighteenth century, chemistry used to be reworked from an paintings to a public technological know-how. Chemical affinity performed an incredible position during this method as a metaphor, a concept area, and an issue of research. Goethe's optional Affinities, which used to be according to the present realizing of chemical affinities, attests to chemistry's presence within the public mind's eye. In Affinity, That Elusive Dream, Mi Gyung Kim restores chemical affinity to its right position in historiography and in Enlightenment public tradition. The Chemical Revolution is generally linked to Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier, who brought a contemporary nomenclature and a definitive textual content. Kim argues that chemical affinity was once erased from ancient reminiscence by means of Lavoisier's omission of it from his textbook. She examines the paintings of many much less recognized French chemists (including physicians, apothecaries, metallurgists, philosophical chemists, and business chemists) to discover the institutional context of chemical guideline and examine, the social stratification that formed theoretical discourse, and the an important shifts in analytic tools. Apothecaries and metallurgists, she exhibits, formed the most idea domain names via their cutting edge method of research. Academicians and philosophical chemists led to transformative theoretical moments via their efforts to create a rational discourse of chemistry in track with the reigning average philosophy. the themes mentioned comprise the corpuscular (Cartesian) version in French chemistry within the early 1700s, the stabilization of the speculation domain names of composition and affinity, the reconstruction of French theoretical discourse in the course of the eighteenth century, the Newtonian languages that plagued the area of affinity in advance of the Chemical Revolution, Guyton de Morveau's software of affinity chemistry, Lavoisier's reconstruction of the idea domain names of chemistry, and Berthollet's course as an affinity chemist.

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Although a detailed contextual history of seventeenth-century French chemistry is beyond the scope of this book, I will point to the rhetorical dimension of the theoretical discourse in the hope that further studies will illuminate its sociocultural dimensions in more concrete terms. 31 The French Paracelsians who taught at the Jardin were, on the 24 Chapter 1 whole, critical followers of Paracelsus. Even as they defended the use of chemical remedies, they tried to cleanse chemistry of the Paracelsian excess of mysticism and to shape it into a respectable philosophy.

Chemistry differed from other sciences in that it was a theoretical and practical science, while all the other sciences were either theoretical or practical. Unlike physics, chemistry did not aim at contemplation and knowledge of mixt bodies, but sought to operate or to make all kinds of useful substances which placed it among the practical 26 Chapter 1 sciences. The goal of chemistry was to prepare medicaments more agreeable to the taste, more salubrious to the body, and less dangerous in their operation.

According to Aristotle, Béguin emphasized, every science had its own principles that constituted its object. Such a philosophically sanctioned inquiry for chemistry meant that it resolved mixt bodies into the three spagyric principles. In other words, Béguin justified the analytic premise of Paracelsian chemistry with the Aristotelian philosophy. Chemistry differed from physics43 and from medicine in its method of inquiry. ” Even if they were studying the same body, physiciens examined its motion and rest, physicians the causes of health and disease, and chemists its resolution and coagulation.

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