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Covalent bonding (each covaI lent bond to a substituent or ~ another metal contributes I : electron), and taking into ac~ count charge add up to the ; total number of electrons of : the next noble gas. This does I . spe: not app1y to paramagnenc ~ cies and there are many other ; exceptions to the rule. Mn7 valence a process used for the determi- ~ electrons, I from covalent nation of molecular weight ~ bond to CI, 5 x 2 electrons from elevation of boiling point ; from carbonyls. Total 18 elecof solution.

In dilu~e ion or radical. , Sc to Zn, Y I ions. Hg. They are ~ showed that it was possible to so call~ because m gen~ra1 they : explain the abnormal activity have ~er d-Ievels WIth con- I coefficient at least for very difiguratIons of the type (n-I)tI' I lute solution of electrolytes. 10. • dea~on process an earlier process which was ~ used for making chlorine by ; oxidising hydrogen chloride in air at 450°C using a copper chloride catalyst. It was pat- I ented in 1870 by Henry Deacon (1822-76).

Dalton's atomic theory ~ a theory of chemical combina; tion, first stated by the British ~ chemist John Dalton (1766: 1844) in 1803. It involves the ~ following postulates: ; 1. elements consist of indivis: ible small particles (atoms). I : 2. all atoms of the same eleI ment are identical; different el~ ements have different types of : atom. ~ 3. atoms can neither be created I nor destroyed. ~ 4. ) molecules). ~ Dalton also proposed symbols ; for atoms of different elements : (later replaced by the present ~ notation using letters).

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