By Gordon Martel
A spouse to Europe 1900-1945 ВОЕННАЯ ИСТОРИЯ, ИСТОРИЯ Издательство: Blackwell Publishing LtdСерия: Blackwell partners to eu historyАвтор(ы): Gordon MartelЯзык: EnglishГод издания: 2006Количество страниц: 587ISBN: 978-1-4051-0664-1Формат: pdf (e-book)Размер: 4,35 mb RAPIDили IFOLDER zero
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Extra info for A Companion to Europe 1900-1945
While described as a “city of cities,” this huge industrial sprawl in fact had no unified direction of any form until 1920. Thus, diverse urban contexts could be found across Europe in the period before World War I. And yet, by 1950, almost all of the countries of Europe could be described as industrial and urban. The period 1900–45 was therefore certainly still one marked by the significant expansion of major towns and cities, often into suburban hinterlands. Unlike the factory industrialization of the nineteenth century, however, which had concentrated people near coalfields and water sources, the capitalism of the twentieth century favored large capital cities and commercial centers.
However, while a mix of state/private agencies continued to administer welfare, state provision gradually rose to the fore. Britain introduced the first compulsory unemployment insurance scheme in 1911, pensions were administered by the government from their introduction in 1908, and local authorities were empowered to build and manage council housing. By 1939, 12 percent of housing stock was owned by the government, whereas the comparable figure for Germany and France was less than 1 percent. In Italy, although technically under central direction by a totalitarian regime from 1922, the influence of the Catholic church (especially in the areas of education and social assistance) ensured a continued mix of state/private welfare here too.
In October 1928, for example, the “Berlin in the Light” festival celebrated just this – the practical aspects of electric lighting (in terms of safer travel and leisure) as well as its symbolic relationship with progress and modernity. However, as was the case with urbanization in general, contrasts and incongruities abound where metropolitan life is considered. In Moscow between the wars, for example, a metropolis of well over a million inhabitants, overcrowding was such that an average small apartment was home to nine individuals.